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Oracle 10g RAC的相关概念

Oracle的Clusterware和管理组件
Oracle Clusterware is designed for, and tightly integrated with, Oracle RAC.
When you create an Oracle RAC database using any of the management tools, the database is registered with and managed by Oracle Clusterware, along with the other Oracle processes such as Virtual Internet Protocol (VIP) address, Global Services Daemon (GSD), the Oracle Notification Service (ONS), and the Oracle Net listeners. These resources are automatically started when Oracle Clusterware starts the node and automatically restarted if they fail. The Oracle Clusterware daemons run on each node.

Oracle ClusterWare的进程组件
Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS)--Manages the cluster configuration by controlling which nodes are members of the cluster and by notifying members when a node joins or leaves the cluster. If you are using third-party clusterware, then the css process interfaces with your clusterware to manage node membership information.

Cluster Ready Services (CRS)--The primary program for managing high availability operations within a cluster. Anything that the crs process manages is known as a cluster resource which could be a database, an instance, a service, a Listener, a virtual IP (VIP) address, an application process, and so on. The crs process manages cluster resources based on the resource's configuration information that is stored in the OCR. This includes start, stop, monitor and failover operations. The crs process generates events when a resource status changes. When you have installed Oracle RAC, crs monitors the Oracle instance, Listener, and so on, and automatically restarts these components when a failure occurs. By default, the crs process makes five attempts to restart a resource and then does not make further restart attempts if the resource does not restart.

Event Management (EVM)--A background process that publishes events that crs creates.

Oracle Notification Service (ONS)--A publish and subscribe service for communicating Fast Application Notification (FAN) events.

RACG--Extends clusterware to support Oracle-specific requirements and complex resources. Runs server callout scripts when FAN events occur.


Process Monitor Daemon (OPROCD)--This process is locked in memory to monitor the cluster and provide I/O fencing. OPROCD performs its check, stops running, and if the wake up is beyond the expected time, then OPROCD resets the processor and reboots the node. An OPROCD failure results in Oracle Clusterware restarting the node. OPROCD uses the hangcheck timer on Linux platforms.

Unix系统Oracle Clusterware的后台进程:
crsd--Performs high availability recovery and management operations such as maintaining the OCR and managing application resources. This process runs as the root user, or by a user in the admin group on Mac OS X-based systems. This process restarts automatically upon failure.

evmd--Event manager daemon. This process also starts the racgevt process to manage FAN server callouts.

ocssd--Manages cluster node membership and runs as the oracle user; failure of this process results in cluster restart.

oprocd--Process monitor for the cluster. Note that this process only appears on platforms that do not use vendor clusterware with Oracle Clusterware.

Oracle RAC的Cache Fusion技术:
Oracle RAC databases have two or more database instances that each contain memory structures and background processes.
Each instance has a buffer cache in its System Global Area (SGA). Using Cache Fusion, Oracle RAC environments logically combine each instance's buffer cache to enable the instances to process data as if the data resided on a logically combined, single cache.

The SGA size requirements for Oracle RAC are greater than the SGA requirements for single-instance Oracle databases due to Cache Fusion.

GCS和GES服务与GRD的作用:
To ensure that each Oracle RAC database instance obtains the block that it needs to satisfy a query or transaction, Oracle RAC instances use two processes, the Global Cache Service (GCS) and the Global Enqueue Service (GES). The GCS and GES maintain records of the statuses of each data file and each cached block using a Global Resource Directory (GRD). The GRD contents are distributed across all of the active instances, which effectively increases the size of the SGA for an Oracle RAC instance.

Cache Fusion的实现:
After one instance caches data, any other instance within the same cluster database can acquire a block image from another instance in the same database faster than by reading the block from disk. Therefore, Cache Fusion moves current blocks between instances rather than re-reading the blocks from disk. When a consistent block is needed or a changed block is required on another instance, Cache Fusion transfers the block image directly between the affected instances. Oracle RAC uses the private interconnect for interinstance communication and block transfers. The GES Monitor and the Instance Enqueue Process manages access to Cache Fusion resources and enqueue recovery processing.

RAC实现的几个后台进程:
The Oracle RAC processes and their identifiers are as follows:
LMS--Global Cache Service Process
LMD--Global Enqueue Service Daemon
LMON--Global Enqueue Service Monitor
LCK0--Instance Enqueue Process


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无觅

By eygle on 2008-06-11 14:54 | Comments (10) | Advanced | 1942 |

10 Comments

大师终于发飙了,期待更多,呵呵
你的RAC的书有没有日程表了?

自己学习学习而已,哪里有资格写RAC方面的书:)

使用了5年多RAC, 始终搞不清楚 CSS 和 CRS 有什么区别, 能给解释一下吗?

使用了5年多RAC, 始终搞不清楚 CSS 和 CRS 有什么区别, 能给解释一下吗?

简单说:CSS负责节点间通信和membership
CRS是HA的架构,负责各种资源的起停监控等
CSS死了,cluster就歇菜了,CRS死了,会重新起一个

我觉得这个理解问题关键在于如何理解CRS。

Cluster Ready Services 这个词的含义被逐渐放大到Oracle Clusterware层面。
从这个意义上说,CSS 是 CRS 组件的一部分,是Oracle Clusterware实现HA功能的一个重要组成部分。

CSS的功能在不断增强,其后台进程也不断增加,10.2.0.4已经有这么多:
[oracle@smsdbrac1 cssd]$ ps -ef|grep cssd
oracle 4727 5854 0 14:05 pts/2 00:00:00 grep cssd
root 15426 1 0 May05 ? 00:43:41 /bin/sh /etc/init.d/init.cssd fatal
root 15811 15426 0 May05 ? 00:00:00 /bin/sh /etc/init.d/init.cssd oprocd
root 15827 15426 0 May05 ? 00:00:00 /bin/sh /etc/init.d/init.cssd oclsomon
root 15843 15426 0 May05 ? 00:00:00 /bin/sh /etc/init.d/init.cssd daemon
root 16017 15827 0 May05 ? 00:00:00 /sbin/runuser -l oracle -c /bin/sh -c 'cd /opt/oracle/product/10.2.0/crs10g/log/smsdbrac1/cssd/oclsomon; ulimit -c unlimited; /opt/oracle/product/10.2.0/crs10g/bin/oclsomon || exit $?'
oracle 16018 16017 0 May05 ? 00:00:00 /bin/sh -c cd /opt/oracle/product/10.2.0/crs10g/log/smsdbrac1/cssd/oclsomon; ulimit -c unlimited; /opt/oracle/product/10.2.0/crs10g/bin/oclsomon || exit $?
oracle 16096 15843 0 May05 ? 00:13:02 /opt/oracle/product/10.2.0/crs10g/bin/ocssd.bin


到11.2会有一个更新的概念: HAS,而且会引入更多的xxxs

大约啥时候发布 11.2 ?

wait for the official announcement. ^_^
The beta1 is just out.

问个问题,cache fusion 包括SQL执行计划的跨实例共享吗?


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